EMS was an Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala state in 1957–59 and then again in 1967–69. He was born on 13 June 1909. He became the first non-Indian National Congress chief minister in the Indian republic. In 1964, he led a faction of the CPI that broke away to form the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM). Namboodiripad pioneered radical land and educational reforms in Kerala, which helped it become the country’s leader in social indicators.